The Ghauri is a land-based surface-to-surface medium-range ballistic missile, in current service with the Army’s Strategic Forces Command a subordinate command of Strategic Plans Division. Designed and developed by Khan Research Laboratories (KRL), the missile system uses a single stage liquid fuel rocket motor to carry a payload of 700 kg to a range of 1,500 km. Two variants of the Ghauri were produced under the secretivemissile research programme started in 1987 and the development of a third variant was cancelled. The Ghauri-II uses increased motor assembly length and improved propellants for an increased range of 2,300 km (1,400 mi).
The missile is named after Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghauri, while the “Hatf” designation originates from the name of the sword or lance of Muhammad.
Upon its development, the missile’s name is traced in the remembrance of the 12th century Afghan King Shahabuddin Ghauri, by a senior scientist who worked on the program with a keen interests in medieval history. Afghan King Ghauri successfully campaigned for the northwestern region of India between 1176 and 1182, but was defeated in his first battle for northern India by Indian King Prithviraj Chauhan.
However, the JS HQ officially has the codename for the missile as “Hatf–5 (Ghauri–I); the Hatf codename originated from the name of the sword or lance of Muhammad.
Design and development
According to the American intelligence estimates in 1999, the Ghauri–I is influenced and its design development is based on the Rodong-1 missile of North Korea. According to the American Federation of Atomic Scientists, the Ghauri–I is believed to inherit a warhead spin-up mechanism from the Rodong 1 and it is stated that this feature could improve accuracy up to 190mCEP— although this is still debatable. The mechanism involved using steering vanes to spin the missile after 100 seconds of flight time. After 110 seconds, the rocket motor stops and the warhead separates from the rocket motor. The warhead then enters a more stable re-entry trajectory due to the spinning motion. Warhead accuracy would be further enhanced if the Ghauri’s inertial navigation system is capable of being updated by GPS satellite signals.
On Pakistan’s own unofficial admission, the technology transfer took place in 1990s in return of the instructions on theenrichment methods of uranium Not much has been publicized as controversy surrounds on the fact when it was claimed that North Korean nuclear efforts were well advance from before the instructions on the enrichment methods of uranium were provided.
According to the Pakistani military reports, the original design of the missile was flawed and the missile burned up on re-entryduring its first test flight in 1998. Its aging electronic systems, engine system, and propellent had to be replace and design of the warhead to be re-design. The KRL, assistance from the NESCOM, DESTO, and NDC, engaged in heavy reengineering and reverse engineered much of the missile system.
The liquid fuel systems are incapable of storing fuel for any long period of time. The Ghauri– I requires refuelling for several hours before launch and this makes it vulnerable to a first strike. It is believed that this is why Pakistan has not pursued liquid fuel system other than the Ghauri–I and Ghauri-II. It also makes it less likely that the Ghaur-Iwould be armed with a nuclear warheads. Although it has been stated that it is capable of being loaded with “all types” of warheads.
Pakistan’s latest solid-fueled Shaheen–IA is believed to be an alternate missile system for the Ghauri–I. However, it has been stated that the Ghauri–I has advantages in lower cost than solid-fueled systems. This is advantageous when testing launch and control systems. It has been speculated that the Ghauri–I design may serve as a starting point for a Pakistan’s space launch vehicle.
The Hatf is a tactical and subsonic unguided battlefield range ballistic missile jointly designed and developed by the Space Research Commission and the Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) in 1980s. After its successful tests, the Hatf-I entered in the service with Pakistan Army in 1990. It is deployed as an artillery rocket and has been replaced by the improved Hatf-IA and Hatf-IB, which have a maximum range of 100 km.
The code name Hatf in Arabic variant means “Deadly” or “Vengeance”. The name comes from the sword of Muhammed, al-Hataf
Development and design
In 1980s, the development on Hatf program began when the chief of army staff General Mirza Beg held a meeting with theSpace Research Commission in an attempt to counter the Indian development of the Prithvi. The program was developed with the assistance from the KRL whose team hastily combined various available technologies to produce the first surface-to-surface missiles. The scientists at the Space Research Commission designed the Hatf-I as a highly mobile missile for tactical use. The design is said to have been derived from the second-stage of the French Eridan missile system. Its major use is as an unguided general bombardment weapon, to be fired across a battlefield or at a general target area. If properly aimed, it can hit within several hundred meters of the target area. The missile is low cost and easy to produce and maintain in large numbers. The Hatf I missile development program dates back to the 1980s. The Hatf-I was officially revealed by Pakistani officials in 1989 and it is believed to have entered service in 1992.
The Hatf I has a range of approximately 70 km (43 mi) and can carry a 500 kg conventional or non-conventional warhead. As it is unguided, it should be considered a long-range artillery shell, with the location of the impact depending upon the proper direction, angle of launch and the ability of the missile to fly straight. The Hatf-I is deployed with high explosive or cluster munitions, although it can theoretically carry a tactical nuclear weapon. The missile has a diameter of 0.56 m and is 6 m in length. It uses a single-stage solid propellant rocket motor.
The Hatf IA and Hatf IB are upgraded versions with improved range and accuracy. The Hatf IA increased maximum range to 100 km by using an improved rocket motor and lighter materials in the missile’s construction. The dimensions and the payload capacity remain the same. Hatf-IA is believed to have entered service in 1995.
The Hatf IB represents the final evolution of the Hatf I missile system. It includes an inertial guidance system that considerably improves the accuracy of the missile and is otherwise identical to the Hatf IA, retaining the maximum range of 100 km and payload of 500 kg. The inertial guidance system allows the missile to be used as an artillery rocket against enemy military encampments or storage depots etc. The missile system is designed to be used like an artillery system, with 5-6 missiles fired simultaneously at the target area. Being a ballistic missile the Hatf-IB would reach its target much quicker than an ordinary artillery shell giving the target little warning to take evasive action.
Hatf-IB was first flight tested in February 2000. All current Hatf-I missiles have been upgraded to Hatf-IB standard as of 2001. The system is operational with Pakistan’s armed forces.
Hatf I — Maximum range: 70 km (43 mi) Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb), unguided.
Hatf IA — Maximum range: 100 km (62 mi) Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb), unguided.
Hatf IB — Maximum range: 100 km (62 mi) Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb) with inertial navigation system.
Hatf IV — Maximum range: 900 km (560 mi) Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) with inertial navigation system.